Categories for 2017
SLHA News ...
News 2017
Lectures and Conferences

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Flinders and Banks
The interaction of two eminent Lincolnshire men

Dr Patrick Kaye gave a well-received talk on Captain Matthew Flinders RN and his friendship with Sir Joseph Banks to an audience of around 50 members and friends of SLHA and the Sir Joseph Banks Society at St Hugh’s Hall Lincoln on 17 May.

Dr Kaye’s interest in Joseph Banks developed through trips to Kew Gardens to indulge his love of photography. He has met Banks scholars and travelled on the replica ‘Endeavour’ in Sir Joseph’s cabin.

Whilst Flinders described Banks as his ‘greatest and best friend’, this was far from a friendship of equals either in age or station. Flinders needed a patron for advancement through the navy and to sponsor expeditions.

Banks may have enjoyed the flattering attention he received from the younger man. Their relationship was badly dented by Flinders’ marriage and attempts to take his wife on his Australian voyage.

During his imprisonment on Mauritius, Flinders felt that Banks was not doing enough to secure his release whilst the reality was that Banks had far less influence with the Admiralty than Flinders imagined.The friendship was rekindled on Flinders’ return to England but was curtailed by his illness and early death.

May 2017

On Saturday 13 March a large group of SLHA members and others met in the Old School Rooms in Nettleham for an entertaining and informative day of talks on historical aspects of physical and mental health. The programme was:

Grantham Plague

John Manterfield

Working from local records, such as parish registers, wills and Corporation minute books, the pattern of plagues can be traced in Grantham during the early seventeenth century, for example in the summer and autumn of the years 1617, 1625 and 1637.

Grantham Corporation set up a pest house in Manthorpe Road for isolating victims and they also increased rate assessments to provide relief funding for those afflicted by the plague.

At the time of the major London plague of 1665 the Corporation also set up a system of watches and took steps to keep out travellers – a successful operation because the town was kept free from the plague on that occasion.

Plants that Kill and Heal
Lorretta Rivett

A surprisingly large range of common garden and hedgerow plants have beneficial properties, most of which have been well known since time immemorial.

Other plants are thoroughly poisonous, even when small quantities are ingested or come into contact with the human body, though there are those like laburnum whose poisonous nature is overstated.

Another group of plants have both benign and malign properties as far as humans are concerned, depending perhaps on the concentration of the essential component or on the degree of ripening of the plant in its annual cycle of growth.

George III
Mike Lewins

The frequently repeated assertion that King George III suffered from porphyria originates from a report by eminent psychiatrists in the British Medical Journal in 1966.

This report was accepted and widely promulgated by leading historians at the time and later formed the background to Alan Bennett’s hugely successful play and film The Madness of King George.

However, the scientific community in the 70s and more recently has always found the original BMJ article deeply flawed. It is clear that all aspects of George’s illness are only correctly explained by bipolar disorder followed by terminal dementia.

Lincoln Asylum
Judith McLaughlin

Lincoln Corporation’s lunatic asylum, later known as The Lawn, opened in 1820. Designed by Richard Ingleman and costing £15,000, it was built on a 3-acre site to the south-west of the Castle overlooking the lower city.

It was a relatively small asylum with 50 bedrooms and 80 beds. Nevertheless it gained a national reputation through the pioneering work of Edward Charlesworth and Robert Hill who developed ways of managing the mentally ill without the use of constant and oppressive physical constraint.


The Hospital of the Holy Innocents
David Marcombe

This leper hospital, of unusual dedication, was situated close to St Catherine’s Priory just to the south of Lincoln. Possibly founded in the late eleventh century, it was one of the earliest of what became a large number of similar ‘hospices’ across England.

It was funded by endowments but over the years its viability and occupation declined; attitudes to leprosy also changed, generally becoming less sympathetic and supportive.

In 1535, at the time of the Reformation, the hospital finally closed with only one resident remaining. Most of the site has been destroyed by nineteenth century railway and housing construction.


Doctors in Georgian Grantham
John Manterfield

As with other professions in provincial towns, members of the medical profession had specialist knowledge, wore distinctive clothing, used Latin, and generated a mystique.

The public believed in their special authority and powers. Nevertheless, cartoons of the time lampooned doctors unmercifully.

In the mid-eighteenth century there were four doctors and two surgeons practising in Grantham. Monuments in the parish church of St Wulfram indicate the wealth and high family connections of some of these members of the medical profession.

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Bust of George III at Lincoln Castle

The Lawn, former Lincoln City Lunatic Asylum


May 2017

Forty SLHA members and friends met at St Hugh’s Hall in Lincoln on 19 April to hear Angus Townley give a detailed account of the drainage of the Isle of Axholme.

The Romans dug two significant channels across the Isle, principally for transport rather than drainage. Sluices and other minor drainage improvements were made in the medieval and Tudor periods but it was only in the 17th century that a comprehensive scheme under Cornelius Vermuyden changed the whole nature of the area.

The principal rivers (Don, Idle, Torne) were channelled and re-routed and subsidiary drains laid to carry water ultimately into the Trent (to the east) or Ouse (north). Further improvements were made by Smeaton and others in the 1760s and some 60 years later by Rennie.

Steam powered pumping engines were first introduced in the 1820s, to be replaced by diesel and later electric pumps. Currently there are 2 major pumping stations, 14 smaller stations and 90 km of flood embankment protecting the Isle.

Owston Ferry Pumping Station


April 2017

Stamp End Railway Bridge, Lincoln
Its hidden significance

Barry Barton gave a talk on the Stamp End railway bridge to a large group of SLHA members and friends at Jews’ Court on 12 March.

This bridge was built in 1846 over the Witham, just to the east of Stamp End Lock, to carry the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway’s line from Lincoln to Barnetby. The bridge was the first in England to be constructed using wrought iron boxed girders.

The engineer behind the construction was John Fowler (who more famously designed the Forth rail bridge in Scotland). Stamp End bridge was in effect a prototype for the bridges Fowler built over the Trent at Torksey and Gainsborough the following year.

Stamp End bridge, listed Grade II, is in urgent need of repair and in February Lincoln City Council gave Listed Building Consent for replacement of the bridge.

SLHA has campaigned for the original girders to be used to create a footbridge across the R Witham since the adjacent crossing (Titanic Bridge) has been closed to pedestrians on safety grounds. Resolution is awaited.

Stamp End Railway Bridge, Lincoln


March 2017

Sixhills Nunnery
Recording an historic building

Chris Page, one of the Society’s Building Recording Group working with Hainton community members to investigate and record this ironstone building, described the project at an SLHA Sunday Special meeting on 12 March.

The principal external walls of the building comprise masonry and bricks of various periods, some of which have apparently been re-used from earlier buildings. Internal elements – fireplaces, roof timbers, stair balusters, paint layers – also present challenges of interpretation.

Documentary research has traced ownership and occupation over the past 300 years and a probate inventory indicates room usage. Thus the understanding of this building's history and its function is becoming more complete.

Sixhills Nunnery - a building of great interest

March 2017

The ‘Arch and Arch’
SLHA’s earliest forerunner

Pearl Wheatley, SLHA Vice-President, spoke to a packed audience at a ‘Sunday Special’ in Lincoln on 12 March about the early history of the Society.

In the 1840s many Lincolnshire churches faced the need for restoration and the county’s clergymen formed a society to study architecture and monitor local developments. Within a short time it broadened its remit and became the Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society.

From the onset the society organised talks and visits for its members. Conducted tours of churches – often several in one day - were the common and popular features of the programmes throughout the nineteenth century.

In the twentieth century the Arch & Arch was an active campaigner on several important planning issues in the city. In 1932 they acquired Jews’ Court from the City Council, thus saving the building from demolition. In 1965 the Arch & Arch amalgamated with the Lindsey Local History Society, and in due course this became SLHA (1974).

The insignia of the LAAS, founded 1844

March 2017

80 people met in the fine early sixteenth-century hall of King’s School in Grantham on Saturday 11 March for a vibrant conference on the vernacular buildings of the town.

Walking tours were led by members of Grantham Civic Trust, with special inputs from Professors David Stocker and Philip Dixon, visiting the Blue Pig (late C16, half-timbered), Vine Street, the Artichoke (C15), Market Place, Conduit, Westgate, George Inn and the Angel Inn.

Afternoon talks were as follows:

The Little-Known Historic Buildings of Grantham
David Stocker
Grantham has a rare example of a C13 ‘stack’ building in Butcher Row at the corner of the Market Place. This survives only as a fine vaulted undercroft below what was a mercer’s shop exposed by late C19 building work.

The Blue Pig is an example of a linear building with a shop end-on to the street, dating from the C16. By contrast, a ‘side-on’ building, with its entrance from a passage at the side of the building, is seen at the Malt Shovel and The Artichoke.

There are records of numerous other significant buildings in the town which have been demolished but there is also much that remains to be discovered – often with timber-framing – behind brick or stucco frontages.

Using Probate Inventories to Establish House Types
John Manterfield
Probate inventories, which only relate to households above a certain size, list the possessions of the deceased room by room. Dr Manterfield’s detailed analysis of 500 inventories of Grantham households reveals changes in both room terminology and function between the C16 and C17 periods.

The number or rooms per household also increased; additional chambers were recorded and cellars appeared for the first time. It will be instructive to relate these documentary sources to the surveys of surviving buildings of the same periods.

What does Building Recording Involve?
Ken Hollamby
This experienced retired professional fieldworker shared his wide experience of recording a variety of buildings, emphasising the simple basics which enable him to generate a floor plan and elevation drawing.

A successful project may bring in more advanced skills – photography, dendrochronology, archive research, archaeology, report writing – but building recording creates opportunities for contributions for anyone with an interest in the construction and history of old buildings.

Photographs: Top - The original C16 Grammar School Hall, venue of the conference
Middle - The Antelope, Swinegate. Prof. David Stocker outlines its significance.
Bottom - The Angel, Watergate. Prof. Philip Dixon with conference members prepare to enter the late C15 inn.

 

March 2017

Railway Buildings celebrated
The M&GNR in Lincolnshire

Nigel Digby entertained an audience of over 60 at St Hugh’s Hall in Lincoln on 15 February to an illustrated talk on the buildings on the Lincolnshire stretch of the Midlands and Great Northern Joint Railway.

This cross-country line ran from Norwich (with an important ‘main’ branch from King’s Lynn to Peterborough) via Sutton Bridge, Spalding, Bourne and Little Bytham to Saxby in Leicestershire, opening in 1893 and closing in 1959.

Nigel, a leading student of this line, showed many of his outstanding and unique collection of early photographs of the railway structures – stations, signal boxes, goods sheds, crossing-keeper’s cottages, bridges, name boards – and commented in detail on their construction and design features. Regrettably, virtually all this railway history has been swept aside and very little remains to be seen today.

Spalding Station today


February 2017

Buildings of Southwell
The early fabric of an historic town

Dr Chris King of the Department of Archaeology, University of Nottingham, spoke to a well-attended meeting of SLHA members in Lincoln on 25 January about the recent English Heritage funded project in Southwell.  Survey work involving the local community group (Southwell Community Archaeology) has examined and recorded a wide range of the town’s buildings.

Southwell has a considerable collection of fine, large houses once associated with the Minster. Parts of some medieval structures survive within one or two of these buildings; some Tudor and Jacobean brickwork can also be seen; but much was rebuilt in the eighteenth century and occupied by new gentry families.

The town also has a good range of early vernacular domestic buildings, several with plain exteriors hiding finely crafted interior details and many with unexpectedly early timber framing, especially in the ‘suburb’ of West Thorpe.

New information about the timber-framed Saracen’s Head has emerged (an open hall). Dr King’s work has also recently taken him outside Southwell to Hallaughton Hall Farm, where the well-known tower is now considered to be a solar tower, once linked to a medieval house (as at Longthorpe, Cambridgeshire).

Westhorpe Cottage, Southwell

January 2017Southwell, Hallaughton, Chris King

Portable Antiquities, Palimpsests, and Persistent Places
The work of the Lincolnshire Finds Liaison Officer

Adam Daubney is the Lincolnshire Finds Liaison Officer for the British Museum’s Portable Antiquities Scheme. He talked about his recent work to Society members at a 'Sunday Special' at Jews' Court on 22 January.

He has been recording archaeological objects in Lincolnshire for over fifteen years. The analysis of finds, mainly made by amateur metal-detectorists, has resulted in a massive increase in our knowledge, particularly about multi-period sites ("persistent places”).

Adam likened these sites to palimpsests, documents which have been over-written but where the original writing can still be discerned and he used Bardney Abbey as an example.

Here, finds dating from the Iron Age to the 6th century, which have not been replicated elsewhere on the "island” estate, tend to indicate that the abbey could be the site of the Saxon cemetery, known to have existed in the area.

January 2017

Captain William Cust ...
"... unfortunately killed by a cannon ball”.

John Manterfield gave a talk with this intriguing title to SLHA members at a 'Sunday Special' in Lincoln on 22 January.

William Cust (1720-1748), a member of the Cust family of Grantham, was a naval officer of great promise who was killed aged 28 in the attack on Port Louis in the West Indies, having previously served with great distinction and noted bravery in battles against the French and Spanish fleets on both sides of the Atlantic.

He had the potential to become an admiral had his career not been cut short. He is commemorated on a fine memorial in St Wulfram’s Church, Grantham, which was made by Sir Henry Cheere, the greatest monumental sculptor of his time.

Whilst not wishing to downplay the bravery and commitment of this young man, the speaker observed that the inscription considerably inflates his deeds.

January 2017William Cust, John Manterfield

Boston’s Grand Sluice
A huge improvement for the town in 1766

Neil Wright was one of three speakers at a 'Sunday Special' at Jews' Court on Sunday 22 January.

He sketched the background to the improvement of the R Witham and the building of the Grand Sluice which was officially opened on 3 October 1766. This work allowed the adjacent fens to be drained thus considerably increasing their agricultural yield, permitted reliable transport between Boston and Lincoln and the establishment of a port on the river.

This resulted in a great increase in prosperity for the town of Boston which is exemplified today by the many fine Georgian buildings of the late eighteenth century.

The Society was involved with marking the 250th anniversary of the sluice last year.


January 2017Boston Grand Sluice