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Christmas Entertainment
Traditional plough play from Branston

Lincoln area members of SLHA held their Christmas Party at St Hugh's Hall on the evening of 10 December. 

After drinks and a cold buffet, entertainment was provided by a group of players from Branston.  Their performance of a local plough play - recently revived from the early 20th century - was greatly enjoyed.

December 2014

Book Launch: Artur Loewental
Outstanding sculptor of medals with Lincoln connection

John Turner's recently published book on Artur Loewental was launched at an SLHA meeting on 23 November.

Ken Redmore, Chairman of SLHA Publications Committee, congratulated John on his achievement and expressed confidence in the success of the book.

Ros Beevers was also thanked for her excellent design and typesetting work which added considerably to the book's value.

The packed audience then enjoyed slices of special iced cake decorated with an image of Loewental's self portrait medal.

Buy a copy of the book.

John Turner, the author, with his book and celebratory cake

November 2014

Mechanical Engineers' Meeting, 1885
A book to record a significant Lincoln event

Detailed printed records of week-long meetings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in both 1885 and 1920 are deposited in Lincoln Central Library.

Background information about sites and firms visited (local engineering works, waterworks, gasworks, steelworks and docks) are particularly informative and useful.

Ken Hollamby and Ken Redmore are preparing a book (to be published jointly by SLHA and Lincoln Record Society) which will reproduce these documents, together with an introduction and additional contemporary illustrations.

They spoke about this project at a "Sunday Special" meeting at Jews' Court on 23 November.

Clayton & Shuttleworth works

November 2014

The Yarborough Mausoleum
An outstanding Lincolnshire building and its statuary

At Jews' Court on 23 November John Lord gave a brief account of the building of a mausoleum at Great Limber by the Earl of Yarborough in 1786, following the death of Sophia, Lady Yarborough, at the early age of 33 in 1769.

It was built by James Wyatt to a classic design.  Most of the building stone was brought from Brodsworth, near Doncaster, and contemporary accounts show the origin of other materials used in construction and decoration.

The mausoleum contains a fine statue of Lady Yarborough (by Joseph Nollekens) and also elaborate monuments in alabaster to William Pelham (d.1587), Francis Anderson (1757) and Charles Pelham (1763).

November 2014

Two Enclosures near Lincoln
What happened at Boultham and Skellingthorpe

A packed audience at Jews' Court on Sunday 23 November were entertained by 3 short talks and a book launch.

Dr Rob Wheeler described the early 19th century enclosure of two parishes to the south-west of Lincoln - Boultham and Skellingthorpe - an unusual process in both instances, largely because of the overwhelming need for drainage improvements.

The names of the new enclosures at Boultham, appearing on the plan accompanying the Enclosure Award, reflect the earlier usage of the area (mainly grazing) and its single common arable field.

November 2014

Recording Industrial History
Conference to mark 50 years of SLHA's IA group

SLHA's Industrial Archaeology team presented a day conference at Bishop Grosseteste University on 15 November to mark 50 years of activity. Speakers from the team gave short illustrated talks to reflect the range of fieldwork and publication undertaken in the county since 1964.

Keynote Address: Recording Industrial History
Catherine Wilson
The study of industrial archaeology has its origins in groups such as the Newcomen Society and individuals such as Rex Wailes (windmills), Tom Rolt (canals & railways) and Neil Cossons (Ironbridge). In 1959 the CBA set up a separate IA committee and a group appeared in Lincolnshire within the Lindsey Local History Society in 1964. From the beginning activities included field survey work and the publication of newsletters, journals and books. The scope of interest in Lincolnshire was wide: windmills, farm buildings, canals, bridges, drainage, engineering works and much more besides.

Members of the current Industrial Archaeology team

Fifty years of Industrial Archaeology in Lincolnshire
Neil Wright
Survey work, producing measured drawings and/or a photographic record, has included windmills (Lutton Gowt), water mills (Holdingham, Kirkby Green), docks (Sutton Bridge), bridges (Fosdyke), brick kilns (Baumber), canals (Stamford, Horncastle), railways (Louth-Bardney, New Holland), tramway (Harlaxton), maltings (Sleaford), drainage engines (Amber Hill, Wiggenhall St German).  SLHA has hosted two AIA national conferences and also regular meetings of the East Midlands societies. A range of publications have been produced: several books, many articles and notes for the SLHA journal, and some too for the AIA journal.

Case study: Publishing a railway book
Ken Hollamby
In 2009 SLHA and the Lincoln Record Society were joint publishers of Building a Railway: Bourne to Saxby, written by Stewart Squires and Ken Hollamby.  This prize-winning volume was based on splendid original photographs taken during the construction of the line in the early 1890s by the line's engineer Charles Stansfield Wilson.  Hours of fieldwork were undertaken by the authors in order to locate the photographs and also add modern views. The resulting book, with its attractive colourful layout, includes biographical details of Wilson, detailed route maps and a re-print of the 1989 book about the line by John Rhodes.

Lincolnshire Mills
Jon Sass
Members of the Lincolnshire IA group were inspired by the work of Rex Wailes, who recorded almost 200 tower mills - 92 still working - in the county between the wars. Detailed local work over the past 50 years has included significant mills at Messingham (water), Lutton Gowt (wind), Barton (tidal), Kirkby Green (wind), Ellis at Lincoln (wind), Holdingham (water) and Louth (paper). The machinery, tools and records of Thompson's millwright's shop at Alford are currently being recorded.  Written, photographic and drawn accounts of Lincolnshire's unique mills have been published in journals and books.

Ken Redmore
The county IA team recorded one of Franks' brickyard at Ferriby Sluice prior to its closure in 1967, a site that illustrated the stages of brick making and the development of small kilns.  Arched or vaulted kilns, which were used at one time by Franks', survive at Baumber, Stixwould, Farlesthorpe and Sutton on Sea and have been recorded in detail.  Records have also been taken of the down-draught kiln on Cross O'Cliffe Hill, Lincoln and visits made to similar tile kilns at Barton upon Humber.  It is planned to survey the multi-chamber Hoffmann kiln at East Halton, a unique survivor of its type in the county.

Case Study: Saving the Ruston-Bucyrus Archive
Derek Broughton
At one time the RB plant in Lincoln was the largest of its type in Western Europe.  Massive earth-moving machines of several types were built and exported to all parts of the world.  The success of the company dwindled in the second half of the 20th century through its failure to take on board hydraulics and other new technologies.  The company finally closed in 1999, but fortunately its important archive of documents and drawings has been saved through the efforts of a small group of dedicated men and is being held by The Collection in Lincoln.

Barry Barton
Lincolnshire has a wide range of bridge types, some of great rarity and significance.  There are relatively few medieval examples, though Lincoln's High Bridge and the Trinity Bridge at Crowland are unique. Road bridges of note from the 18/19th centuries can be found at Gainsborough, Tattershall, Boston and Horkstow.  Pioneering railway bridges of the 1840s survive in Lincoln and Torksey, and Lincolnshire has early examples of the use of reinforced concrete (Spalding) and pre-stressed concrete (Fishtoft) in road bridges.  Important examples of moveable bridges are located at Sutton Bridge, Grimsby and Keadby.

Case Study: Gunby Hall Water Supply
Eric Newton
Gunby Hall (built 1700), close to the site of a deserted medieval village, relied on wells and a local spring for water until the construction of a plant in c.1870.  Water from the chalybeate spring was collected in a brick-sided cistern and then held in a small covered reservoir.  Initially, a ram pump forced this water to the hall and outbuildings and this was supplemented at a later date by a wind pump.  Finally, in the 1920s, a petrol driven pump alongside the reservoir gave a consistent supply until the water mains reached the hall in the 1930s.  This multi-phase water supply system was recorded in 2013.

Land Drainage
Chris Page
Pumping stations at Odder and Dogdyke were visited and recorded in the 1960s/70s and in the intervening period visits - with at least photographic surveys - have included Lade Bank, Pyewipe (Lincoln), Pinchbeck Marsh, Boston, Owston Ferry, Gayton le Marsh, Tydd Gote and Wiggenhall St German (Norfolk).  The production of pumps, engines and other machinery by Lincolnshire engineering firms has also been recorded in books and journal articles.  Interest has recently focused on Bewcarrs PS on the Isle of Axholme and the few early surviving scoop wheel pumps in the Witham Fen north-west of Boston.

November 2014

The Normans come to Lincoln
A day conference in the city

The Society's 2014 Lincolnshire Archaeology Day, on the theme of the Norman impact, took place on Saturday 18 October at Bishop Grosseteste University with an audience of about 100.

Presentations were given by a range of speakers, including experts from at least four different universities. The topics covered in the morning were the fate of Anglo-Saxon churchyard monuments, the recognition of distinctively Norman metal artefacts, and introduction of fallow deer into the British landscape, and the earliest monasteries to be founded in the county after the Conquest.

The afternoon was devoted to the subject of castles, both their French antecedents and their English ones, and culminated in the latest results from Lincoln Castle.

Mick Jones with Pamela Marshall, David Roffe, Robert Webley, Naomi Sykes and Glyn Coppack

October 2014

Ruston & Hornsby Locomotives
Launch of a new book

Over 30 people came to the launch of the book Ruston and Hornsby Diesel Locomotive Album by county author Andrew Neale at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, organised by the Society.  Ray Hooley, Ruston archivist, spoke and conducted the launch.

From modest beginnings late in 1931 Ruston and Hornsby became Britain's largest builder of diesel railway locomotives. In a period of 36 years they built over 6500 locomotives, both narrow and standard gauges. Locomotives were built in Lincoln with their engines made in Grantham.

The book describes and illustrates the range and scope of these, using mainly official photographs of superb quality taken by the company both at the works and on active service.

The book is available from Jews Court bookshop, price £28.00.

Andrew Neale and Ray Hooley

October 2014

Lincoln's Cathedral Close
The medieval houses and their occupants

Dr Marianne Wilson gave the annual Terence Leach Lecture to a large group of SLHA and Lincoln Civic Trust members at St Mary's Guildhall on 18 September. Her topic was the medieval cathedral close at Lincoln.

Over the 14th and 15th centuries large houses, similar to those of the wealthy gentry, were built close to the cathedral and occupied by senior clerics: the dean, sub-dean, chancellor, precentor.  Other houses, of more modest proportions, were provided for choristers and vicars, several of whom lived communally.

What is noteworthy about Lincoln's close is the inter-mixing of small and large houses; senior clerics and lesser members of the community were in adjacent properties.  That many houses owned by the dean and chapter were let to lay tenants was also unusual.

Terence Leach was a noted local historian with particular interest in Lincolnshire families and their houses. He died in 1994.  This was the 20th lecture in his memory.

September 2014

Library Celebration
Donation of SLHA collection to BGU

The library of Lincolnshire books held by SLHA has recently been donated to Lincoln's Bishop Grosseteste University where it will augment the special local history collection in the university library.

A short celebration to mark the accession of the collection was held at BGU library on Thursday 18 September.  It was attended by senior members of the society and university.

Emma Sansby (Head of Library Services, BGU) and Dr Mick Jones (President, SLHA)

September 2014

Treading the Boards
The Georgian Theatre in Lincolnshire

On Wednesday 10th September a small but appreciative audience at Grantham Museum heard Neil Wright talk about Georgian Theatres in Lincolnshire.
In Georgian times both theatres and plays were much more popular than nowadays although at some point in the mid-19th Century all the theatres in Lincoln closed with the exception of Lincoln Theatre Royal. Plays were mainly staged by touring companies and it was usual for two plays to be presented in one evening. Neil showed many illustrations of Lincolnshire theatres and explained how they worked using a fully-restored theatre in Richmond, North Yorkshire as an example.

September 2014

Road, Canal and Railway
A walk near Woolsthorpe by Belvoir

One of the Past and Present events in the Grantham area was a walk on 6 September, looking at the history of Sewstern Lane, the Grantham Canal and the railway line near to Woolsthorpe Wharf on the Grantham Canal. Sewstern Lane is an ancient trackway, still in use today.

There is a sharp contrast between the undisturbed sections and those reinstated after being quarried for ironstone between 1883 and 1918. The ironstone was the reason the railway was built in 1883 and extended to Denton in 1885 with a branch to Harlaxton in 1941 as working moved further south. It closed in 1974. In between times the Canal opened in 1797. It was abandoned in 1936 but long term restoration began in 1992. 

The canal wharf at Woolsthorpe with, to the left centre, the former railway line. 

September 2014

Grantham Industrial Heritage
A walk revealing the town's past

Members of the public and SLHA met at Grantham Museum on Sunday 31 August to mark the launch of 'Past and Present', the exhibition about the Society. A new edition of 'Grantham: an Industrial Heritage Trail', written by Peter Stevenson, was also presented.

John Manterfield, an SLHA member from Grantham, led an informative tour of some of the principal industrial sites on the south side of the town centre - including the engineering works of Hornsby, the Coultas foundry, Mowbray's brewery and several maltkilns.

Buy a copy of the Grantham Trail booklet.

On St Peter's Hill by the statue of Frederick Tollemache (1801-1888), Grantham MP

August 2014

Edward Trollope, Antiquarian
Lecture by Prof John Beckett

The annual Brackenbury Lecture was held in Spilsby Methodist Church on 12 July with an attendance of over 50.

Professor John Beckett of Nottingham University gave a fascinating talk on the life and work of Revd Edward Trollope, who was a leading figure in Lincolnshire antiquarian circles in the 19th century.

Spilsby Methodist Church

July 2014

Retirement of Pam D'Arcy
Long serving volunteer departs

Pam D'Arcy has recently retired after 14 years as Book Purchasing Officer for the Society. Her friends and colleagues presented her with a sum of money which she is putting towards the purchase of a picture.
Pam (third from left) and colleagues at Jews' Court

July 2014

Merseyside insights
Annual study tour based in Liverpool

Members and friends enjoyed an excellent visit to Liverpool over the weekend 4 to 7 July. Quarry Bank Mill (National Trust) made a convenient stop on the outward journey.

In Liverpool on Saturday the group took tours to view the architecture around the docks and city centre, followed, for some, by a behind-the-scenes examination of the Mersey Tunnel. Sunday began with a mini-cruise in the Mersey before visits to the U-Boat Museum in Birkenhead and the splendid Port Sunlight village, gallery and museum.

Guided tours of the city's Anglican and Catholic cathedrals brought the weekend to a close.

Thanks are due to Ken Hollamby (his tenth tour as leader) for the excellent arrangements, including two first rate speakers who introduced the group to Liverpool's buildings and the archaeology of Merseyside.

At the U-Boat Museum Birkenhead and in the Liverpool Anglican Cathedral

On the dock side, Liverpool

July 2014

A Day at Gunby
Members relax at a fine National Trust property

On Sunday 29 June - mercifully dry and warm - a group of members took picnics to Gunby Hall (between Spilsby and Skegness) and enjoyed a wide range of activities.

Tours of the house and garden, offered by National Trust volunteers, were supplemented by talks about the church (by David Stocker), the deserted medieval village (Paul Everson) and the park's Victorian/Edwardian waterworks (Stewart Squires).  Rod Callow also provided musical entertainment on the Hall piano and church organ.

We are grateful to Astrid Gatenby and her staff at Gunby Hall for the generous help given to the day's arrangements.

Looking at St Peter's church with David Stocker (left) and the deserted
medieval village in the park with Paul Everson (right)

A tour of the gardens to the east of the Hall


June 2014

Hilary's Lincolnshire
A celebration of Hilary Healey's life

The wide range of the late Hilary Healey's interests and achievements were celebrated in Spalding on 14 June. In an event jointly arranged by SLHA and Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire, speakers recalled her lasting contribution to Lincolnshire's archaeology and local history.

The speakers were:
* Tom Lane - a personal (and amusing) tribute to Hilary from a close colleague at HTL.
* Anne Irving - Hilary's pioneering research on Lincolnshire medieval pottery, especially from Toynton, in association with Ethel Rudkin.
* Tom Lane - Hilary's unique contribution to the understanding of medieval salt making on the Lincolnshire coast and in inland areas such as Bicker.
* David Roffe - the unpublished study he and Hilary made of surviving monastic buildings and the origins of yeomanry in Kesteven.
* Ruairidh Grieg - the identity and repertoires of the men from the Brigg area of Lincolnshire whose recitals of folk songs were recorded by Percy Grainger (one of Hilary's keen interests).
* Rodney Cousins - the Lincolnshire tradition of building construction in Mud-and-Stud, several of which were studied and drawn by Hilary as a devotee of vernacular architecture.
* Kevin Leahy - the Saxon Cemetery at Ruskington (exacavated and recorded by Hilary) and its regional significance.
* David Start - Lincolnshire's surviving medieval crosses, a recording project he and Hilary had completed shortly before her death.

The book 'Windmills in Pinchbeck, Lincolnshire', written by Joyce M Curtis, and extended, introduced and edited by Hilary Healey, was launched by David Start.  Buy a copy of the book.

A large and attentive audience in Spalding

June 2014

Looking to the Heavens
Lincolnshire men and astronomy

According to Dr Mike Leggett, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, Lincolnshire people and organisations have had a remarkable influence on the history of astronomy.

In a talk in Lincoln on 11 June he outlined the contributions of Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253, Bishop of Lincoln), Andrew Storer (1642-86, US colonial astronomer), Henry Andrews (1743-1820, observer of solar eclipses), George Boole (1815-1864, mathematician), and several other Lincolnshire men who played minor but significant roles in the 19th century.

Newton's work was, of course, without parallel.

Dr Leggett also described the emergence of scientific and astronomical societies and the construction of observatories.  A major role was played by the Spalding Gentlemen's Society, especially in the eighteenth century, where regular lectures and astronomical studies took place.

June 2014

Wartime Farm
Entertainment and information at local museum

Over 600 visitors attended a special event organised by SLHA in association with the Museum of Lincolnshire Life on Sunday 8 June.

The Society had a bookstall and a display showing a selection of foods that were rationed in 1945 including a few items that were generally unavailable, to promote discussion.

Typical evacuee items together with some associated documents also formed the basis of some interesting discussions. Tours were arranged around the farm machinery in the Agricultural Gallery at the Museum.

Visitors enjoyed a variety of living history displays and a live musical performance.

The SLHA Bookstall

June 2014

Annual Awards from SLHA
Winning projects from Nettleham and Market Rasen

The annual Flora Murray Award, announced at the SLHA AGM on 7 June, is shared between Nettleham Parish Council and Rase Heritage Society.

The Nettleham Bishop's Palace Heritage Amenity Project has involved several local groups and is supported by Heritage Lottery Funds.  The site, a Scheduled Ancient Monument in the centre of the village, is now open to all, and information for visitors about its history is publicised on boards and in an attractive leaflet.

The Rase Heritage Society at Market Rasen has created a tour of the town featuring notable buildings, people and events entitled 'All Our Stories'. Of particular merit is the supporting multi-media information accessible on the internet and mobile phones.

An Award of Excellence has also been made for the Puritan Path Tourism Project at St Botolph's Church, Boston. A series of 13 engraved stones on an approach to the church commemorate local people who left the town in the 1630s and made a significant contribution to life in the United States.

Award winners Caroline Foster (Rase Heritage Society) and John Evans (Nettleham Parish Council) with Chris Lester (SLHA Chairman) left and Mick Jones (SLHA President) right

June 2014

SLHA Annual Meeting
Business, Celebration and Socialising in Grimsby

The Society's AGM was held in the Town Hall, Grimsby on 7 June, attended by about 50 members.

Chris Lester, SLHA Chairman 2013-14, presented an illustrated report which reflected a busy year.  Finances remain an issue but measures are in hand to reduce costs and increase revenue.

Officers appointed for 2014-15 were;
President: Michael Jones
Chairman (acting): Chris Lester
Vice-Chairman: Nigel Burn
Hon Treasurer: Chris Hewis
Team & Committee Chairmen:
* Local History: (to be appointed)
* Archaeology: Craig Spence
* Industrial Archaelogy: (to be appointed)
* Buildings recording: David Stocker
* Publications: Ken Redmore

Following lunch members made visits to the Town Hall Time Trap Museum, the Local History Library (Grimsby Library), and the Fishing Heritage Centre.

June 2014

Animal Magic!
Family activity with a Lincolnshire flavour

This half term family activity day at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life on 29 May was very well attended with a constant flow of visitors throughout the day.

The craft activities organised by the Society, took place in the gallery alongside the "Past and Present" exhibition. This worked very well and there was a lot of interest in the Society and its activities with many visitors spending time perusing the books on display.

Many visitors were on holiday in Lincoln and were impressed with the wide ranging activities of the Society covered in the exhibition.

Activities for families included modelling domestic and wild animals of Lincolnshire, creating bangles with animal inspired decoration and making decorative wall plaques based on farm animals. Lots of people asked about forthcoming events for families!

The event was part of the Past and Present project supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.


June 2014

A Wolds Village Walk
The highlights of Tathwell revealed

Jean Howard, Blue Badge Guide and long-time resident of the village, led a large group on a walk round Tathwell on Sunday 25 May as part of the Wolds Walking Festival.  This particular walk was organised by SLHA.

Beginning at St Vedast's Church, Jean led the way to the principal buildings in the village, most of which were provided by the Chaplin family who resided in the Tathwell Hall in the nineteenth century.

On the basis of her local research and conversations with older residents, Jean painted a lively and informative picture of this small village and its special features.  The two hours walking around Tathwell in the warm evening sunshine were most enjoyable. 

At Tathwell Lodge, once occupied as a shooting lodge by Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, friend of the Chaplin family.

May 2014

Book Day at the Museum
Thomas the Tank Engine and other entertainment

A Book Day organised at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life on Saturday 24 May proved popular with families who participated in the associated activities including storytelling.

Story telling took place in the Agricultural Gallery around one of the Ruston railway locomotives on display This is the type of engine that was the inspiration for "Rusty" who appears in the Thomas the Tank engine series.

Additional activities included using modelling material to create a Lincoln Imp or a boggart which appears in Lincolnshire folklore and stories, and the ever popular activity of painting a medieval tile design inspired by designs from Lincolnshire.

The Society bookstall was an additional attraction offering both new and second-hand books for sale.

The event was part of the Past and Present project supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

May 2014

Cancelled Event
Researching a Parish War Memorial Book

This event, planned for Saturday 24 May, was CANCELLED.

We hope that everyone who planned to come was able to pick up this message and that no-one made a wasted journey.


May 2014

Lincolnshire Folklore
Songs and Entertainment in Lincoln

On Sunday afternoon, 18 May, a capacity audience at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life was entertained to a talk about Lincolnshire folklore and customs by Tom Lane and illustrated musically by his colleagues Teri, Anne and Nigel.

Tom ranged over events such as the Haxey Hood, Plough Plays and Stamford Bull-Running to the more obscure customs such as Caistor Gad-Whipping, Mould Washing and Reed-Strewing. Songs included the Lincolnshire Wedding Song, Horkstow Grange and the Statute Song; the whole event was brought to a close by a stunning performance by Maurice Morris, the band's jig-doll, followed by well-deserved applause.

This event is part of "Past and Present", the SLHA's year-long series of events supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Tom Lane and colleagues giving Lincolnshire entertainment

May 2014

WW1 in Lincolnshire
A wide-ranging and successful conference

The Festival Hall at Market Rasen was the venue on 17 May for a well-attended day of talks about aspects of the First World War in Lincolnshire.

Lincoln School and the 4th Northern General Hospital
Chris Williams & Peter Harrod
The premises of Lincoln Grammar School (later Lincoln School and now Lincoln Christ's Hospital School) on Wragby Road were taken over as a military hospital in 1914. The main buildings were used by staff and officer patients; 20 temporary huts were erected on the playing field to provide 1126 beds for other ranks, and in the course of the war over 45,000 men were treated there.

The life and activities of the temporary hospital are brought vividly to life in the pages of the local magazines of the period - still retained in the extensive archive held at the School.

Zeppelins over Lincolnshire
Cliff Clover
The great German airships were developed to cover a long range and carry a heavy bomb load. Their hydrogen-filled buoyancy bags made them vulnerable to both accidents and enemy fire.

Zeppelins had limited success in bombing raids over England (they were responsible for 560 civilian deaths). UK fighter aircraft, such as the Sopwith Camel, taking off from both aerodromes and boats, were used to combat them, though the range and altitude required stretched them to their limits.

Field Marshal Lord Robertson
Molly Burkett
William Robertson, born in Welbourn, the son of a tailor, enlisted in the Army as a young man and after a few years, despite prohibitive social and financial barriers, entered staff college (Douglas Haig was his contemporary).

Robertson served in India and South Africa and married the daughter of a major general. His outstanding personal and professional qualities saw him gain a series of promotions until he became Chief of the General Staff and a leading player in the British Army during WW1.

Molly Burkett, Mike Osborne, Cliff Clover and Terry Hancock

Chris Williams and Peter Harrod

The Defence of Lincolnshire in the First World War
Mike Osborne
Invasion by land, sea or air was foreseen for several years prior to 1914 and measures were taken to defend the country. The Navy established and equipped bases from Scapa Flow to Kent and also manned coastal batteries in many places, e.g. Killingholme to protect the Humber. Guns were mounted on shore or on old vessels off the coast.

The Army provided beach patrols - some on bicycles - and the first pill boxes appeared as shelters, later to protect gunners. Hales Sand Fort and Bull Fort, at the mouth of the Humber, were also built at this time.

Air defence was established through anti-aircraft guns, searchlights and sound mirrors.

Flying Training in Lincolnshire in World War 1
Terry Hancock
The first powered flight was in USA (Wrights) and most early development was in France, but the British soon built planes and employed them for reconnaissance when the war began.

A RNAS base at Killingholme was set up for patrols and training from 1916. Other sites for similar purpose soon followed, with Cranwell as a major base for the training of pilots of both planes and airships.

Some sites continued in use through WW2 and beyond but there are generally few remains of those that only operated during WW1.

A startling statistic: of the 14,000 British pilots who died in WW1, 8,000 were killed in training.

The Book of Remembrance in Lincoln Central Library
Stewart Bennett
This finely produced book, displayed in the lobby of Lincoln Central Library, contains the names and other details of 963 Lincoln men who died in WW1.

A little over half served with Lincolnshire Regiments; their sacrifices were made at battlefields - and at sea, and in the air - in many parts of Europe and beyond.

The details of age, address, parents and school are included in the special forms that were filled by grieving families. It is an impressive and moving record.

May 2014

Celtic Art
Richly decorated artefacts before the Romans

Dr Joy, formerly of the British Museum, spoke to an audience of SLHA members in Lincoln on 14 May about artistic design in the Celtic (Late Iron Age) period.

This was an opportunity to hear a real expert in his field as Dr Joy described work on tracing common motifs used to decorate British objects dating from about 350 BC up to the Romans. He showed how they varied according to the application of the artefact, ranging from the fabulous torcs for personal decoration to feasting and martial objects such as drinking vessels and the Witham Shield.

The well-illustrated presentation included many of his own drawings of motifs which he has discovered and he demonstrated how some were built up from several simpler designs. Designs evolved over time and by 100 AD they were more striking, employing more coloured minerals and the Roman metal, brass.

Dr Joy postulated that positive and negative versions of the same simple motifs found on mirror backs could be a reference to the reflective properties of the mirror, also that some decorated items helped to shape society rather than reflect it.

May 2014

First World War Memorials
Launch of Gazetteer of Lincolnshire sites

A book about the First World War memorials of Lincolnshire was launched by Judy Theobald of BBC Radio Lincolnshire on Saturday 26 April. The book launch was one element of a successful day conference on Wartime Lincolnshire organised by The Lincoln Record Society at the University of Lincoln.

This substantial book, written by Michael Credland, edited by David Start and published by SLHA, gives details of all the county's WW1 memorials (their designs, architects, opening events) with contemporary photographs.  Also included is an index of names of all those listed on the memorials. Buy a copy of the book.

Book Launch Party: David Start (Production Editor), Judy Theobald (Guest of Honour), Michael Credland (Author)

April 2014

Lincoln City Parks
The story of the City's large public open spaces

At an open meeting at St Hugh's Hall on 16 April Andrew Walker (formerly Head of the Lincoln School of Humanities and Performing Arts at The University of Lincoln) described the development and public enjoyment of three City parks: Temple Gardens, the Arboretum and Boultham Park. All were endowed with generous donations by local people and organisations which helped to make them successful.

Temple Gardens, at the foot of Lindum Hill, was originally a much larger open space than it is today.  Christ's Hospital High School for Girls and Usher Gallery were built on part of the park.

The Arboretum on Monks Road was designed by Edward Milner, a nationally renowned figure, and opened in 1872. The stone figure of a lion and the bandstand were donations (the latter by a band), and the fountain came later when the water supply was inaugurated in 1911.

Boultham Park created from the grounds of the former Boultham Hall, home of the Ellison family, was used to grow food in WW2 and housed troops at that time.  The house was demolished in the 1959.

Today, following significant investment by the City Council (still going on at Boultham), the parks are attractive and well managed areas.

Arboretum Bandstand

April 2014

Lincolnshire Bomber Command Memorial
Local initiative supported by SLHA

A meeting took place at the University of Lincoln on 8 April about the memorial planned to all who served Bomber Command in Lincolnshire during the Second World War.  The striking memorial will be situated on Canwick Hill outside Lincoln.

For some time there has been a move to build a memorial to the 25,611 Bomber Command aircrew who lost their lives in World War 2.  These are the men listed in Lincoln Cathedral's Rolls of Honour and are from the UK, the Commonwealth and the rest of the world.

This figure represents 46% of all the Command's losses during the war. In total 55,573 killed out of a total of 125,000 aircrew (a 44.4% death rate), a further 8,403 were wounded in action and 9,838 became prisoners of war.

An extraordinary mix of people from all over the world flew with Bomber Command, including Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Poles, Czechs, South Africans, French, Americans, Jamaicans and Rhodesians. 28% of the 55,000 lost Bomber Command airmen were non-British.

The memorial includes an Interpretation Centre (the Chadwick Centre) in which the collective story of Bomber Command will be displayed. That will include a tribute to those crew members who were lucky enough to survive, the ground crews whose essential work kept the aircraft flying, the aircraft and engine manufacturers and an understanding of the effect of the campaign on the civilian population in Germany and at home.

There are opportunities for volunteers to help with the research involved with the Chadwick Centre.

April 2014

Exhibition Launch
Gathering in Lincoln to celebrate SLHA anniversaries

On 4 April a large group of SLHA members - of several generations - and guests attended the opening of an exhibition at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life to launch PAST and PRESENT, a year of events and activities to celebrate the Society's special 2014 anniversaries.  Honoured guests were the Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire and his wife, Tony and Jenny Worth; the Mayor and Mayoress of Lincoln, Patrick Vaughan and Lorna Stow; and the Sheriff of Lincoln and her consort, Patricia and Maurice Carter.

In this year, 2014, SLHA is celebrating the 170th anniversary of the earliest forerunner of the Society, 50 years of an active Industrial Archaeology group in the County, and 40 years of SLHA itself.

The special exhibition includes 20 illustrated panels of information and several display cases highlighting the history of SLHA and the wide range of its activities and interests.

The exhibition is open at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life until 25 July 2014. (Museum opening hours: 10.00 to 4.00 Monday to Sunday.)   It will then be displayed at Grantham from 5 August to 31 October 2014 and will later be transferred to Caistor Heritage Centre.

Special Guests: Tony Worth (Lord
Lieutenant & SLHA Patron); Jenny Worth;
Lorna Stow (Mayoress of Lincoln; Patricia Carter (Sheriff of Lincoln); Maurice Carter (Sheriff's Consort); Patrick Vaughan
(Mayor of Lincoln)

1. SLHA Presidents: Dr Michael Jones, Catherine Wilson OBE, David Robinson OBE
2. SLHA officers: Ken Redmore (Publications), Prof David Stocker (Building Recording), Chris Lester (SLHA Chairman), Brenda Webster (Local History), Stewart Squires (Industrial Archaeology), Dr Craig Spence (Archaeology)
3. An informal group of members and guests.

April 2014

Recording Farm Buildings
SLHA members learn new skills

The recently established SLHA Buildings Recording Group spent a day at Coulson's Farm, Spridlington, on 22 March.

Alan Wadsworth of the Wiltshire Farm Buildings Group introduced a simplified approach to recording farmsteads based on a site plan, photographs and concise descriptive notes.

The early 19th century farm buildings at Spridlington, seemingly straightforward enough, presented a wide range of features for interpretation and discussion.

West range at Coulson's Farm, Spridlington

Measuring, photographing, discussing: an absorbing day's activity

March 2014

Water Supply at Withcall
A remarkable system installed by Nathaniel Clayton

Eric Newton gave an illustrated talk as part of a "Sunday Special" at Jews' Court on 16 March.  His topic was the impressive 19th century water supply on the Withcall estate, installed by Nathaniel Clayton, the Lincoln industrialist who had bought the estate in 1880.

The source of the water was a series of springs in the north-east corner of the parish.  Water was also impounded there to form a large reservoir which gave a supply to drive a waterwheel.  This in turn drove a 3-cylinder pump to drive the fresh spring water along cast iron pipes to holding tanks at several farmsteads around the estate.

The length of piping was considerable (over 6 miles) and the height between pump and storage tanks was also remarkable (over 200 feet, in one instance).  The private system worked - almost maintenance free - until the public piped water supply reached the village in the 1970s.

Water supply reservoir


March 2014

The Shaping of SLHA: 1920-2014
How our Society changed and grew in the 20th century

Pearl Wheatley traced the development of SLHA over the last 100 years in a talk at Jews' Court on 16 March.  Pearl had described the 19th century origins of the Society at the conference on Architects and Antiquarians in February and this brought the story up to date.

The Lindsey Community Council, set up in 1927, arranged day schools, fostered village local histories and founded the Lindsey Local History Society in 1930.  Activities expanded - the Universities of Hull and Nottingham became involved - and the organisation, now numbering over 250 members, soon covered the whole of Lincolnshire.

In 1974 the LLHS amalgamated with the Lincoln Archaeological Research Committee to create SLHA.  Groups with special interest in industrial archaeology and family history were developed and a vigorous publication programme was sustained.  A wide range of events - lectures, study tours, research, fieldwork - was maintained as membership numbers (700+) and influence expanded.

LLHS Summer School at Woodhall Spa, 1930s

March 2014

Heroes of Lincoln Archaeological Research Committee
The archaeologists, 1945-75, who excavated Lincoln's historic past

In the 1930s more than one leading expert considered that there was little of archaeological significance in Lincolnshire, but intense and productive activity over the 30 years immediately after WW2 - especially in Lincoln itself - gave a lie to this view.

In a talk at Jews' Court on Sunday 16 March, Mick Jones, retired City Archaeologist, outlined the achievements of the Lincoln Archaeological Research Committee over this period.  Local men Tom Baker and Sir Francis Hill were behind the creation of the group and the academic leadership of Ian Richmond was pivotal.

A succession of gifted archaeologists worked in the City: Graham Webster, Norman Booth, Hugh Thompson, Dennis Petch, Ben Whitwell, Catherine Wilson, Christine Colyer.  Along with workmen and volunteers, these individuals directed work at a series of important Roman sites across Lincoln, until the Lincoln Archaeological Trust was set up in 1974 and others such as Ken Wood and Peter Rollin made their contribution to the unearthing of the City's past.

Excavation of Roman forum in Bailgate, early 20th century

March 2014

Ward & Dale of Sleaford
The UK's largest steam ploughing company

Ward and Dale of Sleaford was the largest firm of steam ploughing and cultivating contractors in Britain.  The story of the firm was told by John Dale and Joe Sharpe, descendants of William Dale, to a large audience at the monthly SLHA Sleaford Group on 20 February.

The firm was founded by the brothers Frederick and William Ward in 1876; they had financial resources and some expertise in steam cultivation. They were soon joined by William Dale, a young ploughman of outstanding ability, and the established local partnership of Yates & Agnew.

The firm grew steadily to reach 12 ploughing sets (engine, plough/cultivator, water cart and living van) in the 1890s and 24 sets in 1914.

As well as ploughing and cultivating the firm undertook mole draining, tree stump clearing and lake dredging, and offered general engineering services.  The emergence of the more versatile and economical tractor power in the 1930s brought about the demise of the business in 1939, though one or two pairs of engines survive to retain a link with this remarkable company.

February 2014

Romans Rule!
Half-term craft event for the family

This half term holiday event for families organised by the Society and held at Nettleham Library was attended by 76 visitors of all ages.

The successful two hour drop-in session included the opportunity to discover intriguing facts about Roman Lincoln and the chance to enjoy a selection of craft related activities inspired by evidence from the Roman period.

The activities included making a decorated dagger and scabbard, painting a mini frescoe on a plaster cast and creating a Roman board game and playing it.

Several families had travelled from Lincoln and surrounding villages. Many visitors expressed interest in the Society and its activities and were very positive and enthusiastic about more family events being arranged in a variety of venues.

The event provided an excellent opportunity to highlight the forthcoming activities for families linked to the Society Celebrations of 2014.

February 2014

Lincoln's Roman Bridge
A considered view of its structure and decoration

It is known that the Romans built a bridge over the Witham at the place where Lincoln's High Bridge now stands.  But what was the bridge like?  Michael Lewis has considered this question for a number of years and he talked about his findings to a large SLHA audience in Lincoln on 19 February.

The river was much wider at this location in Roman times; in the early medieval period the creation of new water courses (Great Gowt and Sincil Dyke) and the infilling of low-lying land reduced it to its current width.  So the Roman bridge must have been over 100 metres long, multi-arched, probably with stone piers and timber deck.

The careful examination of several large stone fragments, dredged from the river in 1950, suggests to Dr Lewis that the bridge was flanked by columns, as seen in Roman bridges elsewhere in Britain and Europe.

He concludes that these columns, essentially designed to impress - understandable in their location at the entrance to the Roman Lower City - also supported hand rails along the sides of the bridge.

February 2014

Antiquarians and Architects
Shaping the Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology

The Society's annual February conference at Horncastle College on Saturday 8 February explored the origins of SLHA and the context - both local and national - in which church architecture and antiquarian issues became such a marked focus of study and interest.

Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society and its Properties
Pearl Wheatley

The LAAS (earliest forerunner of SLHA) was formally established in 1844 and had its first HQ in Louth.  It soon moved to Lincoln, a more convenient location, and successively occupied premises in Silver Street, Eastgate, Central Library, Bailgate and Exchequergate. As well as having a place to meet, it was necessary as time went by to store museum items (including a splendid set of brass rubbings) and house a library.

LAAS intervened in 1931 to save Jews' Court from demolition and the Trust set up to own the property also became responsible for Bardney Abbey.

The Society, despite its modest financial resources, has been well supported and active throughout its history.

The speakers: Chris Johnson, Carol Bennett, Rob Wheeler, Pearl Wheatley, Chris Mackintosh-Smith



J S Padley: Archaeology and the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society
Rob Wheeler

James S Padley, from relatively obscure origins, received early training as a surveyor and became involved in large-scale drainage work in the Lincolnshire Fens.  Through this work he collected many significant archaeological finds - especially Roman, but also the Witham Shield.

Padley did not join the short-lived Lincoln Topographical Society but eventually became a member of LAAS, where some of his finds were deposited.  The Topographical Society, possibly too inward looking and non-conformist, did not suit him; he was also initially wary of LAAS (dominated by C of E clergy) until it broadened its interests to embrace all matters antiquarian.
E J Willson: Antiquarian and Architect
Chris Johnson

Born to a Lincoln architect-builder and with several distinguished siblings, Edward James Willson (1787-1854) had an exceptional career as both antiquarian and architect.  He worked in the Cathedral (Bishop's Eye, organ case) and remodelled Exchequergate and the Sub-Deanery.

Among the pupils he took on at his practice were Frederick Jobson (1812-1881, artist, architect and Methodist minister) and James Smetham (1821-1889, pre-Raphaelite artist).  Willson went on to remodel several Lincolnshire churches (both C of E and RC) and did work for the Heneage, Pelham and Chaplin families.

He also pursued a political career in the City; he is buried at Hainton.


The Fall and Rise of Anglican Church Building in the 19th Century
Chris Mackintosh-Smith

The changes in fashion in church architecture from Classical to Gothic in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries - so well chronicled on the national scene - can be traced through the village churches rebuilt or restored during this period in Lincolnshire.

The Classical style is demonstrated in the churches at Langton-by-Spilsby (1720-30) and Gautby (1754-56).  In the mid-nineteenth century the profession of architects became clearly established and at the same time national movements brought a strong preference for medieval or Gothic styles for both churches and secular buildings.

Churches were rebuilt or remodelled in this style at Dalby (James Fowler, 1862), Nettleton (Fowler), Raithby (Nicholson, 1839), Hatton (Fowler, 1870-74), Lincoln St Mary Magdalene (Bodley, 1882), Freiston (Fowler, 1871), North Elkington (Fenton, 1852) - examples the speaker knew well from his professional work.


Drawings by J C Nattes commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks
Carol Bennett

Jean Claude Nattes (1765-1839) was a gifted French artist who specialised in topographical subjects using pencil or pen with colour wash.  He was commissioned by Banks to produce drawings of Lincolnshire churches and other buildings which were later collated and bound in 4 volumes.

These volumes passed though members of the Stanhope and Fane families before being deposited at Lincoln Central Library.

Although most of the drawings are incomplete, they form an important record of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century buildings, especially churches which were shortly to be demolished or extensively remodelled.


February 2014

Woodhall's Museum
The history of a building, a photographer and his images

A large group of members were entertained by three short talks at Jews' Court on Sunday 26 January.

Jackie Goodall, of The Cottage Museum, Woodhall Spa, gave a fascinating illustrated talk about the museum building and its unusual collection of photographs and objects.

The Cottage is a simple prefabricated building with timber frame and corrugated iron walls and roof.  It was brought to its current site on Iddesleigh Road c.1890 and occupied by the Wield family.

John Wield (b.1877) was a gifted and prolific photographer who left a large collection of images now in the ownership of the museum.  He also ran a local "taxi" service using donkey-drawn bath chairs to get visitors between railway station, hotels and the spa baths.

The meeting was shown a wide selection of Wield's excellent photographs depicting Woodhall village and society in the first quarter of the twentieth century.

The museum has an excellent website:

Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum

January 2014The Cottage Museum Woodhall Spa. John Wield

Medieval Graffiti
Symbols and pictures in Lincolnshire churches

Brian Porter, who spoke to a large audience at Jews' Court on 26 January, is leading a group of volunteers recording examples of medieval graffiti in Lincolnshire churches.

Of the 70 churches visited so far - out of a daunting 600+ - over two-thirds have provided examples.  Lincoln Cathedral, unsurprisingly, is very rich in graffiti.

As well as masons' marks, there are religious symbols (crosses, daisy wheels, pentagrams), animals, human figures, ships and games.

Much of the graffiti is difficult to spot, interpret and photograph, but the efforts of the group have already brought to light some outstanding images.

Graffito of windmill at Haceby St Margaret

January 2014medieval graffiti, masons' marks, pentagram

Rails in the Wolds
Looking at the former Louth to Bardney Railway

A combination of private visits and organised walks in 2012-13 enabled Stewart Squires to walk and photograph most of the 10 mile stretch of closed Louth-Bardney railway line between Withcall and South Willingham.

On Sunday 26 January Stewart presented a short slide show to SLHA members showing the main features of this scenic part of the line.

Two tunnels - the only ones on the line - were dug to get the line through the Wolds, and a high embankment was built across the river Bain to the west of Donington on Bain.  These tunnels, privately owned, survive in good condition and now host important colonies of bats.

A few other structures can still be seen: station buildings or platforms at Withcall and Donington; bridges under the line; platelayers' huts; gateposts and fence posts.

East portal of South Willingham or High Street tunnel

January 2014Donington on Bain, Withcall, railway, tunnel

Ice Age Journeys
A notable community archaeology project near Newark

At the monthly Wednesday evening meeting on 22 January, over 70 people listened to archaeologist Daryl Garton describe "Ice Age Journeys', a community archaeology project in Farndon outside Newark.

Prior research and evidence gathered before the building of the new A46 road led archaeologists to realise that some 14,000 years ago bands of stone age hunters gathered in the area outside Farndon to hunt for animals which congregated there either for the grazing or to cross the River Trent. They left many flint chips from knapping and a few tools including scrapers and arrow points.

The three-year HLF-funded project has attracted more than 30 volunteers from the public to help archaeologists on the site together with others engaged in cleaning, sorting and recording finds.

The site has also been visited by many people of all ages and the project has been very successful in engaging with the general public. For further information see .

The audience at St Hugh's Hall, Lincoln

January 2014

Volunteers Wanted
Selling books and work to do with Lincolnshire's heritage

Like many other societies, SLHA relies on volunteers to run its activities and keep the society ticking over. We have a city bookshop and building (Jews' Court) to manage - and these also require lots of willing individuals.

We're always on the look out for new volunteers, whether Society members or not.  It helps to have an interest in history or heritage, but anyone with enthusiasm and commitment might find a useful and interesting role with us.

Currently we have a range of volunteering opportunities.

For details contact the SLHA Office or phone 01522 521337.  Come and join us!


January 2014

Lincolnshire Anniversaries: 2014
Births, deaths, openings and special events to note

* Death of Saint Guthlac at Crowland (11 April).  The hermitage where he had spent 15 years in solitude and penance became the site of Croyland Abbey.

* Death of Sir John Bolles, of Scampton, Lincoln MP from 1690 to 1702.  He was a Tory who gained some notoriety in his later madness as an outspoken pro-Jacobite.
* Revesby Abbey bought by Joseph Banks (1665-1727), great-grandfather of Sir Joseph
* The Congregational Chapel in St Paul's Street, Stamford destroyed by a Jacobite mob
* Nave of St Mary's church Mablethorpe re-built in red brick

* Thomas Paine, author of "The Rights of Man' and "The Age of Reason" began a short spell of work in Alford as an excise officer, ten years before he emigrated to America
* Fleet Hargate General Baptist Church, the first in the village, was opened. The society had originated in Holbeach as a branch of the Spalding church.
* Work commenced on the Grand Sluice on the Witham in Boston.  Below this point the river - known as The Haven - is tidal.

* Death of Matthew Flinders, native of Donington (19 July).  He was a distinguished navigator and cartographer, the first man to circumnavigate Australia
* Opening of Horncastle British School, the first such in Lincolnshire (1 March).  It was built on land in South Street provided by Joseph Banks, the school's patron.
* Building of Fosdyke Bridge over the river Welland by Sir John Rennie.  This helped create an important link from East Anglia through the Fens to Lincolnshire and the north.

* Foundation of the Lincoln Diocesan antiquarian society which became known as the Lincoln Architectural and Archaeological Society, forerunner of SLHA

* Death of George Boole, who was born and educated in Lincoln and invented the algebra underpinning computer science (8 December)
* The following churches built in whole or part: St Helen's, Boultham (chancel); and St Andrew's, Minting, by Ewan Christian.
* Opening of Whitton School, a National School, funded by Lady Strickland.  The school had a single classroom, a cloakroom and a coalhouse; it closed in 1943.

* Sir George Doughty, ship owner and Grimsby MP, died (7 April)
* Opening of Naval Air Station Killingholme, the first military aerodrome in Lincolnshire (August)
* Opening of new Lincoln Central Library buildings in Free School Lane
* Tattershall Castle first opened to visitors.  Lord Curzon, who had purchased the derelict castle in 1911, bequeathed it to the National Trust on his death in 1925.

* End of passenger services on Woodhall Junction and Horncastle Railway (13 September) after 99 years of operation

* Last running of Lincolnshire Handicap on Lincoln West Common (18 March).  It transferred to Doncaster.
* Death of Lady Astor at Grimsthorpe Castle, her daughter's home (2 May).  Born in America and married to an English viscount, she was the first woman MP to sit in the House of Commons
* Boston College of further education opened in September, offering 7 vocational courses in its first term
* Newport [Roman] Arch, Lincoln, was severely damaged by a goods lorry which became stuck under the arch (July).  The arch, unique in Britain, is currently (2014) undergoing restoration.

* Flixborough disaster (1 June).  The Nypro chemical plant close to the Trent near Scunthorpe was destroyed by a huge explosion which caused damage over a wide area.  Had it not occurred over a weekend, many more than the 28 lives would have been lost.
* Lincolnshire Local History Society and the Lincoln Archaeological Research Committee amalgamated to form the Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA)

January 2014

Peter Grey's Photographs
SLHA helps with an important archive

Peter Grey was a photographer who worked for many years for the Lincolnshire Echo and who, sadly, died recently. His photograph archive is of great value to the County.

With the agreement of his executors, SLHA has taken literally thousands of black and white and colour photographs, negatives, slides and glass plates into protective custody.

Very shortly, work will begin on a catalogue. Our aim is to find a secure and accessible home for what an initial assessment clearly shows is a collection of quality and historical value, dating from the late 1960s to the late 1990s.

Right: Lincoln Photos by Peter Grey: the Avoiding Line crossing the Witham (above) and the GNR crossing on the High Street (below)


The 'Avoiding Line' over the Witham near the High Street, Lincoln

Railway crossing and footbridge, High Street, Lincoln

January 2014